Brand concepts are defined as unique, abstract meanings associated with brands. These meanings arise from a particular combination of attributes, benefits, and the marketing efforts used to translate these benefits into higher-order concepts. Although brand concepts reflect both tangible (i.e., what the brand actually does) and intangible (i.e., the way people think about the brand abstractly) aspects of the brand, over the years, both practitioners and academics have grown to realize that establishing abstract brand concepts on the basis of motivational and emotional meanings induces more favorable consumer responses than focusing on superior functional attributes. This explains the increasing prevalence of abstract brand concepts imbued with human-like values, goals, and emotions through processes such as anthropomorphization (e.g., California Raisins), personification (e.g., Jolly Green Giant), or user imagery
(e.g., the Mountain Dew “dudes”).